The Virtue of “Akpo Edenden ve Ufuoma” among the Urhobo: Imperatives for Environmental Security in Africa
sapientia journal vol 18


Environmental Security
Security, Environment


The environmental security situation in the African continent is gravely serious. There are many security threats that affect both human persons and the natural environment. Threats such as civil war and violent conflicts, maritime piracy, eco-terrorism, depleting clean water, herdsmen- farmer clashes, deforestation, desertification, land degradation, atmospheric pollution, poverty, unplanned urbanization, and so forth persist. They are not only security threats that make the environment unsecured, they also affect environmental health, human well-being, and welfare and result in social displacement. In spite of different theories proposed for solving the environmental crisis and security threats, environmental insecurities and crises remain. This paper, while not discountenancing other theories, argues that the virtue of Akpo edenden ve ufuoma (life of calmness, harmony, gentleness, and peace), which is the opposite of Akpo fafanrhion (a reckless and wicked life), can help contribute in mitigating environmental insecurities. It argues that when people practice a virtuous life of calmness, peacefulness, and harmony they assist to create peaceful communities and also foster environmental protection and thus curb environmental insecurities. The methods deployed in the paper are hermeneutics and critical analysis. The paper finds that there are environmental insecurities in Africa. It concludes that a virtuous life and good character such as that found in Urhobo aboriginal thought and praxis can help enhance environmental security.